The 100,000 Strong in the Americas Innovation Fund Announces New Grant Winners for Mexican and United States Institutions

The United States State Department, The United States Embassy in Mexico City, Partners of the Americas, and the Mary Street Jenkins Foundations announced the grant winners for the most recent Innovation Fund contest.

 

The 100,000 Strong in the Americas Innovation Fund is the flagship educational initiative of the American State Department in the western hemisphere. Its purpose is to maximize the benefits of the commitment made by the public and private sectors, regional governments, and higher education networks to increase academic mobility, student exchanges, training programs, strengthen regional cooperation in education, and foster the development of the work force in the American continent.

 

The Innovation Fund inspires universities and institutions in the United States to associate with higher education institutions in Latin America and create new exchange and training opportunities. The associations create links and provide students with vital access to new training programs to work in teams, acquire technical and language skills, solve real world problems, and be better prepared for the modern work force.

 

From its start in January 2014, the Innovation Fund has awarded 211 grants to teams from 385 higher education institutions in 25 countries and 43 American states.  Mexico is the leading country in this initiative, forming dynamic alliances with American institutions and universities to give students access to academic exchange programs in both countries. To date, 19 Mexican states and 24 American states benefit from these associations.

 

The winners of this first contest sponsored by the Mary Street Jenkins Foundation are eight new associations between sixteen universities and colleges in the United States and higher education institutions in Mexico. These alliances will offer exchange and training programs to students from both countries in social sciences, humanities, archeology, anthropology, technology, and education.

 

John Creamer, the Business Attaché at the United States Embassy in Mexico, said that “education exchanges and academic mobility are a fundamental element of our bilateral relations, best expressed as a collaboration to finance programs such as the Fulbright-Garcia Robles Scholarship and Jóvenes en Acción. What makes 100,000 Strong in the Americas work so well is the dedication that American and Mexican institutions put in working together to benefit students and professors in both countries, as well as the donations from the private sector, such as the Mary Street Jenkins Foundation, to give them the resources to succeed.”

 

Roberto Jenkins De Landa, representing the Mary Street Jenkins Foundation, stated: “Our family has followed during generations what my grandfather, Don Guillermo Oscar Jenkins, entrusted us, which is to continue contributing to support education in Mexico. We are proud to have joined this public-private effort, led by the United States Government, to make possible these international education experiences for students and Mexicans, through the support of the Innovation Fund. We will continue our commitment to this effort.”

 

The Innovation Fund grants are normally USD$25,000 each to implement new exchange and training programs for students.

 

The Innovation Fund grants sponsored by the Mary Street Jenkins Foundation will go to: Georgia Gwinnett College, in Georgia, USA and Universidad Iberoamericana, in Mexico City, Mexico; Salem State University, in Massachusetts, USA and Universidad de Guanajuato, in Guanajuato, Mexico; State University of New York (SUNY) Broome Community College, in New York, USA and Universidad de Celaya, in Celaya, Mexico; University of Alabama, in Alabama, USA and Universidad de las Américas Puebla, in Puebla, Mexico; University of Arkansas, in Arkansas, USA and Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, in Puebla, Mexico; University of Illinois at Chicago, in Illinois, USA and the Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, in Morelos, Mexico; University of New Mexico, in New Mexico, USA and Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, in Puebla, Mexico; University of Northern Iowa, in Iowa, USA and Universidad Marista de Mérida-Yucatán, in Yucatán, Mexico.

UDLAP Is Accredited by the Royal Society of Biology

  • UDLAP is the only university in the continent to have a Biology program with an International Advanced Accreditation granted by the Royal Society of Biology.

 

 “The Honor’s program of the Licenciatura in Biology at Universidad de las Américas Puebla obtained, for five years, the Advanced International Accreditation by the Royal Society of Biology, starting in August 2018,” stated Dr. Martín Alejandro Serrano Meneses, a faculty member of the Department of Chemical-Biological Sciences at UDLAP.

 

Regarding the requirements to achieve this accreditation, Dr. Serrano Meneses said that they concentrate on four areas: “Achieving the academic excellence levels demanded by the Royal Society of Biology, which are measurable through the education given to students as well as through an evaluation of the practices that students do in the lab; showing that students develop in an environment conducive to research; demonstrating that students have the facilities needed for their training; and finally, considering that students have such skills as understanding of physics, chemistry, and math in a biological context.” Likewise, he stressed that “universities can obtain this accreditation by meeting top standards in education, infrastructure, and research production that are measureable and provable.”

 

Dr. Serrano remarked that Universidad de las Américas Puebla is the only university in the continent to have a licenciatura program with an advanced accreditation level. “Outside the United Kingdom, only UDLAP and the University of Ghana have an Advanced International Accreditation.”

 

He said that this accreditation means three things: first, it is a recognition of academic quality since it helps to identify the best practices of the university; second, it allows for better student recruitment; and third, the university can review the study programs in depth and receive constructive criticism from professionals to improve those licenciatura programs.

 

Finally, the UDLAP faculty member expressed that the advantage that students have when belonging to an institution with this accreditation is that they have better job opportunities once they graduate. “We live in a very competitive world, especially in the biology area, and students need to show evidence that they are graduating from a university that has the highest academic excellence standards.  One of the tangible elements is demonstrating the skills required to carry out cutting-edge research.  Another benefit is that their degree is recognized internationally by other universities. In addition, when students from the Honor’s Program in Biology graduate, they get one-year free membership to the Royal Society of Biology, which allows them exclusive access to Society events to meet biologists who are dedicated to promoting research and biology at an international level.”

 

It is important to note that the certificate granted by the Royal Society of Biology was formally given to Universidad de las Américas Puebla April 24 in the House of Commons at Westminster Palace in London.

 

The Royal Society of Biology accredits UDLAP’s Licenciatura in Biology

  • Universidad de las Américas Puebla is the only university outside the United Kingdom to have a licenciatura with an advanced accreditation.

The Licenciatura in Biology at Universidad de las Américas Puebla obtained the Advanced International Accreditation granted by the Royal Society of Biology, a leading professional organization in Biological Sciences in the United Kingdom, which grants this accreditation to educational institutions that make an outstanding contribution to the advancement of biological sciences.

“This is a five-year accreditation granted to UDLAP’s Licenciatura in Biology through the Honors Program of the Royal Society of Biology of the United Kingdom”, commented in an interview Dr. Martín Alejandro Serrano Meneses, faculty member of the Department of Chemistry and Biology at UDLAP and the person in charge of the accreditation process. He explained that this accreditation was obtained through the honors program, as one of the criteria to earn it is that students have experience in research. “…the students who have done research are part of the Biology Honors Program”, stated the UDLAP professor.

He pointed out that Universidad de las Américas Puebla is the only university outside the United Kingdom to have a licenciatura program with an advanced accreditation. “There is no licenciatura program in the world outside of the United Kingdom to have earned an advanced accreditation, since one must remember that the Royal Society of Biology has two types of accreditations, one that is normal and an advanced one. In our case, we received the advanced accreditation because we met all the academic and quality research standards required by the Royal Society of Biology”, stated Dr. Martín Alejandro Serrano.

For his part, Dr. Eugenio Sánchez Arreola, academic director of the Department of Chemical Biological Sciences at UDLAP, explained that in order to receive this accreditation the university had to meet criteria which included conducting research and offering a quality study program; integration between teaching and research; proven practical experience in the lab and in the field; knowledge and understanding of research methodology; appropriate and clear evaluation criteria within the program; active and ample research; a faculty with renowned researchers recognized in the nation and abroad; ongoing research projects in labs; recorded achievements of the students at the end of their learning practices. “To grant this accreditation, the study programs and facilities were reviewed, including the library, labs, syllabus of each course, manuals, facilities, and quality of the faculty”, commented Dr. Eugenio Sánchez.

By achieving this type of accreditation, both the university and its students and graduates acquire benefits in two areas.  An international accreditation for UDLAP and international accreditation for its students and graduates.  In the former, the most prestigious is the accreditation that was given to the university, with an international branding of “good practices”, which allows it to be compared with other top-quality universities and guarantees employers that its graduates have adequate skills and knowledge. In the latter, students and graduates have greater perspectives to be employed and are more competitive in the global work market.  In addition, graduates receive a free subscription to the Royal Society for a year after graduation, which will expose them to an important network of biosciences professionals and will keep them updated in topics related to biology. “This accreditation will bring great benefits to UDLAP, because it means that we meet international criteria and have outstanding quality students”, said the academic director of the Department of Chemical Biological Sciences at UDLAP.

It is important to note that the Licenciatura in Biology at Universidad de las Américas Puebla has been taught for over 20 years, and that it was one of the first programs offered at the School of Science.  This licenciatura has other great accomplishments, such as the fact that its graduates have earned graduate degrees at leading universities abroad.

UDLAP is Ranked for the Third Consecutive Year by El Universal as the Best Private University in Mexico

According to the study carried out by El Universal, Universidad de las Américas Puebla is the best private institution of higher education in Mexico for the third consecutive year.

“UDLAP participates in the national ranking carried out by El Universal newspaper.  We have collaborated in this ranking for many years, and we continue to reach levels that recognize the quality and prestige of the university”, commented during an interview Mariana Zozaya Rodrígue, Director of External Classifications of Universidad de las Américas Puebla,.  She said that in the 2018 ranking UDLAP is placed as the third best higher education institution and that in addition, as a private institution, 18 of its academic programs were ranked in the first three places.  The Business Administration and Marketing programs are in first place among all national universities that participate in this ranking. “UDLAP is the university with the most ranked academic programs in this study”, she affirmed.

When asked about the benefits of participating in these rankings, Mariana Zozaya said that they mainly are to detect what happens outside the university, what goes on in other institutions, becoming aware of what UDLAP is doing well, what is excellent and that which will allow the university to develop further to maintain the quality it has today.

It is important to mention that El Universal is one of the most prestigious national newspapers and its printed edition has different supplements and publications directed at different audiences. In 2007 it  made a strong commitment with education, and year after year researches and publishes its ranking of the best universities in Mexico.

About their evaluation format, the Higher Education Institutions (IES) ranking , El Universal considers three factors: quantitative information, provided by the universities and worth 60% of the ranking;  employer surveys worth 20%; and professors surveys of the selected IES, worth another 20%.

Finally, it is important to note that day by day UDLAP reaffirms its commitment to educate leading professionals in their field, offering students and their parents the safety that Universidad de las Américas Puebla is based upon, as well as the best facilities and outstanding academic faculty to educate competitive, capable, and up-to-date alumni to meet the needs of society and companies. “This national ranking places the university as the best private institution of higher education in Mexico. This is a source of pride.  It is the result of teamwork of students and graduates with professors”, said Mariana Zozaya Rodríguez, Director of External Classifications at UDLAP.

The UDLAP Choir Goes to Havana

From June 26-30 the UDLAP Chamber Choir will represent Mexico and UDLAP in the “CORHABANA 2018” festival in Cuba, joining choirs from different countries.

The Chamber Choir of Universidad de las Américas Puebla, directed by Gisela Crespo, has been recognized again for its artistic performance and staying power in the world of music.  This is the reason why they have been invited this year to represent Mexico in the XIII International Choir Festival CORHABANA, to be held from June 26-30.

During the event to present in the university’s facilities the UDLAP Chamber Choir, and wish them well before their departure, the UDLAP community was represented by María del Carmen Palafox Ramos, Vice President of Student Affairs; Gisela Crespo Brito, Chamber Choir Director; Dr. Brian Robert Banks, faculty member; and Sergio Arturo Castro Medina, Director of Cultural Diffusion.  Mr. Castro Medina gave an encouraging message to all those who will participate in this festival. “Your participation in this festival is a source of great pride for us, a dream that we had during several years.  We were invited because of your quality, professionalism, and especially your human quality which is what we can feel proud to say is each one of you”, he mentioned.

For his part, César Rojas Carreón, Licenciatura in Architecture student and member of the UDLAP Chamber Choir, thanked all those present for the great support they have received, from the president, Dr. Luis Ernesto Derbez Bautista, the Department of Cultural Diffusion, the Licenciatura in Music, and Gisela Crespo, “since if it were not for her we would not have this quality”, he stated.

Finally, the student added: “The choir is characterized for its professional level of work, which is very high indeed.  We are committed to the university and there is nothing else to say but that we will represent UDLAP, Puebla and of course, Mexico very highly”.

The majestic festival is organized by the National Center of Chamber Music of the Cuban Music Institute, under the guidance of Digna Guerra Ramírez (National Music Award 2006, in Cuba), who is an internationally renowned chorus director.  Some choruses that will be participating with the UDLAP Chamber Choir are the Cuban National Choir, the Entrevoces Chamber Choir, and the Exaudi Chamber Choir, to mention a few.

Once more, the UDLAP Chamber Choir will represent Mexico and Universidad de las Américas Puebla before the choirs of different countries, with a repertoire that includes works such as Mística by UDLAP professor Brian Banks; works from the New Spain period, such as A la xácara by J. G. de Padilla, Hermoso amor que forxas by J. García de Céspedes, Le chant des oiseaux by C. Janequin; and popular Mexican and Cuban songs such as La bruja (Public Domain), Tú no sabe inglé with text by N. Guillén and music by O. Marín, Lágrimas Negras by M. Matamoros with arrangement by C. Monier and Manisero by M. Simons with arrangement by J. A. Martinez.

The UDLAP Chamber Choir’s student members are Isabel Merino Rodríguez, Carmen Xareni Gónzalez Gomez Llanos, Jazmín Rodríguez Guillén, Aranza Islas Bouchain, Acsa Bat Bereshit Cupido Preisser, Adriana Méndez de la Rosa, Alejandra Morales Camilli, Diana Carolina Solis Olivares, Iliana Oliva Fuentes Ordaz, José Juan Marzal Fernández, César Rojas Carreón, Miguel Alberto Guzmán Moreno, Tavaris Taylor, Isaac Muñoz Andrade, and Ricardo Adrián Ramos Avendaño,all under the direction of Gisela Crespo.

For more details, please visit  www.udlap.mx/eventos and don’t forget to follow us in @CulturaUDLAP in Facebook to know about their presentations and activities.

UDLAP Celebrates its 74th Graduation Ceremony

With seven thousand attendees, Universidad de las Américas Puebla held its 74th Graduation Ceremony, in which 1,496 proud graduates received their licenciatura and graduate diplomas, recognizing that they successfully finished their studies in one of the five academic schools that are part of UDLAP.

In the company of their friends and family, the 2018 graduates heard the president, Dr. Luis Ernesto Derbez Bautista, congratulate and thank them for the trust placed in the university to prepare them for their professional careers. “Welcome to the seventy-fourth Graduation Ceremony at Universidad de las Américas Puebla. Like every year, I start this message congratulating the families who are with us: this is a day of great joy for all of you, a day in which we jointly celebrate the graduates for obtaining their academic degrees and to whom I wish that this day may be the beginning of a road full of success and satisfaction”.  Dr. Derbez added that this ceremony symbolizes the end of the transformation of each graduate into prepared citizens to carry Mexico and the world towards a better future.

He finished his statement emphasizing that today it is necessary for citizens to understand that they must defend principles such as the balance between the branches of government, the separation of powers, and equality before the law as indispensable values, if we want to guarantee that Mexico has  equilibrium between liberty and equality for all people. “I have no doubt that you will successfully respond to this challenge and that, as of today, your everyday activities will shape a Mexico that will not only be a successful country, but also one in which plurality, tolerance, transparency, social justice, and democracy will prevail. I wish you a long and prosperous life and may happiness accompany you always”, affirmed UDLAP’s president.

Eduardo Ruiz-Healy, proud alumnus of Universidad de las Américas Puebla, delivered the commencement address to the UDLAP class of 2018,  and encouraged the graduates to trust their instincts to achieve success. “If there is one defect of formal education it’s that it kills the instincts. Trust your instincts and become fully aware that you will not take anything with you.  That day you will no longer be afraid of losing it all”, stated Ruiz-Healy.  He finished his speech with a list of recommendations: “Do whatever you enjoy and makes you passionate; learn to look for jobs – there are no unworthy or boring jobs; do not work for money, work for pleasure; enjoy what you have, set achievable objectives, fight against your demons and addictions, accept your failures and tragedies, be humble and seek love so you can love and be loved”.

During the 74th Graduation Ceremony, Universidad de las Américas Puebla recognized the academic merit and outstanding achievements of its graduates.  Cum Laude awards were bestowed on students who have a GPA above 9.7, Summa Cum Laude for graduates with a GPA of 9.9 or above, and the Medal for the Highest GPA for students from undergraduate schools and graduate studies who obtained the best GPA of their class. This honor was given to Eduardo Camarillo Abad from the School of Science, Adolfo Sánchez Monterrosas from the School of Business and Economics, Graciela Isabel Huerta Bedolla from the School of Social Sciences, Jessica Tecpanecatl Durán from the School of Engineering, Alejandro Iván Flores Chávez from the School of Arts and Humanities, and María Teresa Graciana Aguilar Nava from the Master in Organizational Psychology.

The most emotional moment of the ceremony came when balloons and confetti flooded the stage and stands, which was followed by hugs, photographs, and finally the meeting of graduates with their families.

It is worth mentioning that Universidad de las Américas Puebla graduated the Class of 2018 convinced that it is made up of well-educated citizens who are committed to society and able to work for a better Mexico and world.  This is the result of their potential and UDLAP´s academic excellence, as well as the projection and leadership that its students and alumni achieve.

The Impunity Index Increases in Mexico: IGI-MEX 2018

Dr. Luis Ernesto Derbez Bautista, president of Universidad de las Américas Puebla (UDLAP), presented the “National Impunity in Mexico and its Dimension, IGI-MEX 2018», a work directed by Dr. Juan Antonio Le Clercq Ortega and Gerardo Rodríguez Sánchez Lara, UDLAP professors and researchers.

«Since publishing in 2015 the first Global Impunity Index, Universidad de las Américas Puebla has stated that the fight against impunity is a key element in the strategy to fight the violence and corruption that affect Mexico.  The new IGI-MEX 2018 not only confirms the results presented in its 2015 version, but also shows that, disregarding recommendations, the authorities have allowed the level impunity in the states to increase in practically the entire country» expressed Dr. Luis Ernesto Derbez Bautista.

He also mentioned that the report offers specific data with which a program of verifiable and gradable measurements can be designed to fight the violence and corruption that plague the nation.  Likewise, UDLAP´s president stated that faculty and students of Universidad de las Américas Puebla participated in the IGI-MEX 2018, « so UDLAP reiterates its vocation for excellence in research and its social commitment to Mexico and its citizens in strengthening the Rule of Law », emphasized Dr. Derbez Bautista.

He stressed that the political parties must assume their responsibility and understand that if they want to fight corruption and violence they have to eliminate impunity, this being the only way to improve the levels of security, access to justice, and protection of human rights in our country.  It is also necessary to invest in, train, and improve the items detailed in the Global Impunity Index: «It is not a matter of who governs, the point is how to govern to define priorities and how they are implemented », highlighted president Derbez.

During his participation, Dr. Juan Antonio Le Clercq Ortega, Director of the Department of International Relations and Political Science at UDLAP, pointed out that impunity is a phenomenon that must be studied by itself – not only accompanied by security, justice, violence, and corruption – because it feeds and multiplies the effects of these problems, increasing the number of victims, aggravating problems such as graft, and even breaching human rights.

In comparison with the results of the IGI-MEX 2016, and applying the same methodology and measuring the same dimensions and variables, the IGI-MEX 2018 provides the following conclusions

  • States with Increasing Impunity. These states increased their impunity index by five points or more: Aguascalientes (+7.48 points), Tlaxcala (+7.37 points), Nayarit (+6.65 points), Puebla (+6.4 points), Chiapas (+5.68 points), Guanajuato (+5.66 points), Tamaulipas (+5.49 points), and Coahuila (+4.95 points).
  • 10 States with the Highest Impunity Indices. 1) Estado de México (80.06), 2) Tamaulipas (78.88), 3) Baja California (78.08), 4) Coahuila (77.88), 5) Quintana Roo (77.33), 6) Guerrero (76.08), 7) Aguascalientes (75.85), 8) Veracruz (75.62), 9) Puebla (75.59) and 10) Oaxaca (75.12).
  • Murder Goes Unpunished in Mexico. The percentage of people jailed for murder related to those murders being investigated decreased from 27.5% to 17.09%.
  • States with Practically No System of Justice. We must remember that Mexico has four times fewer judges and magistrates than the rest of the world (3.9 for every 16,000 citizens). The country is in this situation because there is a deficit in appointments at boh the state and federal level. The following states have fewer judges and magistrates than the average to service the population: Aguascalientes (3.34), Baja California (2.73), Coahuila (2.74), Hidalgo (2.5), Estado de México (2.32), Michoacán (3.2), Nuevo León (2.56), Puebla (1.5), Sonora (3.31), Tamaulipas (3.08), Tlaxcala (2.82), and Yucatán (2.97).
  • The number of judges and magistrates per hundred thousand residents increased marginally from 3.5 to 3.59.
  • Mexico has half the state preventive police (50.86%) than it should have as a minimum.
  • The public prosecutor offices are collapsed: the average number of agencies is 3.53 per 100,000 residents. The staff at these offices decreased from 33.9 to 31.19, the agents from 7.6 to 6.27 and for, every thousand crimes committed, the proportion of agents went from 5.31 to 4.97 (all percentages are per 100,000 residents.)
  • The percentage of inmates without sentence went from 35.7% to 27.71%, due to the entry into effect of the new criminal justice system.
  • The ratio of jail personnel to inmates decreased by 15%, going from 0.2 in IGI-MEX 2016 to 0.17 in IGI-MEX 2018.
  • With 80.06 points, Estado de México has the highest impunity index in the country. There are 202,205 pending cases, the highest in the country. Only 1,209 people were sentenced  and only 0.59% of all cases end in a sentence, which speaks of the weakness in cases management by the prosecutor’s office.

UDLAP Presents the Study Global Tax Evasion in Mexico

By invitation of the Tax Administration Service (SAT), Universidad de las Américas Puebla undertook the study Global Tax Evasion in Mexico. This study is an analysis of tax collection and evasion in Mexico during the 2005-2016 period, and was presented by Dr. Luis Ernesto Derbez Bautista, UDLAP´s president.

To begin, Dr. Juan Manuel San Martín Reyna, Director of Outreach and Institutional Development at UDLAP, stated that this work aims to expose the rates of tax evasion in the country, with the additional objective of updating the study carried out the previous year, incorporating now the Special Tax on Production and Services and the General Tax on Imports and Exports. “Basically what we did was to determine what is the maximum or potential quantity that could be collected in the country and compare it to what is actually collected.”

Then, Dr. Luis Ernesto Derbez Bautista praised the work done by the Tax Administration Service for obtaining spectacular results in the last five and a half years, eliminating exonerations and evasion in the country. “For us, working with these type of studies is simply to complement what we want as a research institution, which is to go into the topic of impunity and elimination of corruption in Mexico”.

He added three recommendations to continue to promote tax collections: 1) Keep up the technological modernization in the supervision of tax payments; 2) Amend the Tax Reform, eliminating exemptions and zero tax in different products; 3) Attack informality, incorporating small and medium companies in the informal sector of the Mexican economy. “If we applied these points as part of a government plan, the next government would possibly have an additional income of 1 to 1.4 trillion pesos. Continuing the work done by the Tax Administration Service, it is possible to collect, if not this amount of money, at least half or a third of it, and we’re talking about 500 to 700 billion pesos per year”, stated Dr. Derbez Bautista.

One of the main results of the study is the trend of decreasing tax evasion in Mexico – associated to IVA, ISR, IEPS and IGIE (General Tax on Import and Export) – since it went down from 42% in 2005 (equivalent to 5% of GDP) to 16% in 2016 (equivalent to 2.6% of GDP). In terms of the benefits obtained, Dr. Derbez highlighted that IVA tax evasion went from 33% in 2005 (equivalent to 1.7% of GDP) to 16.4% in 2016 (0.9% of GDP). The authors pointed out that the study shows that practically 80% of GDP in our country could be subject to IVA and that yet, keeping a wide range of special taxations (zero tax and exemptions) represents almost a trillion pesos per year.

Regarding ISR, tax evasion dropped from 50% in 2005 (equivalent to 3.5% of GDP) to 19% in 2016 (1.5% of GDP). The UDLAP academics stated that the ISR categories that have advanced the most against tax evasion were Companies (the evasion rate went from 54% to 20%), as well as Wages and Salaries (the evasion rate went from 36.5% to 11.5%). On the other hand, the ISR lines that advanced the least against tax evasion were Rents (tax evasion rate of 91% down to 73.4%) and Individuals with Business Activities (went from 69.5% to 56%).

As for IEPS, its analysis was divided in oil IEPS (gasoline and diesel) and non-oil that includes alcoholic beverages less than 14 proof, alcoholic beverages above 20 proof, flavored drinks, tobacco and cigarettes, telecommunications, games and raffles, pesticides, and non-basic food. Regarding the former, the study found a tax evasion rate in gasoline and diesel of 2.2%, while non-oil products had a tax evasion rate of 9.4%. The sum of both is equivalent to 0.1% of our country’s GDP. It is important to mention that the highest evasion rate within IEPS was pesticides with 26.8% ($236 million pesos).  However, even if the rate in gasoline is less (2.2%) in money terms it amounts to much more than pesticides ($6.5 billion pesos).

Finally, regarding the General Tax on Imports and Exports, the authors found that the tax evasion rate for 2016 was 10.9%. Thus, the authors pointed out that the total evasion in 2016 in Mexico was 510 billion pesos, which represented 2.6% of our country’s GDP.  The results of the study show a trend of diminishing levels of tax evasion in Mexico, especially since 2012, which can be explained by the widespread use of collection technology, as well as the first effects of the Tax Reform.